Adjustable sockets may improve residual limb fluid volume retention in transtibial prosthesis users.


Loss of residual limb volume degrades socket fit and may require accommodation.


To examine if either of two accommodation strategies executed during resting, socket release with full socket size return and socket release with partial socket size return, enhanced limb fluid volume retention during subsequent activity.

Study Design

Two repeated-measures experiments were conducted to assess the effects of socket release on limb fluid volume retention.


Limb fluid volume was monitored while participants wore a socket with a single adjustable panel. Participants performed eight activity cycles that each included 10 min of sitting and 2 min of walking. The socket's posterior panel and pin lock were released during the fifth cycle while participants were sitting. In one experiment (Full Return), the socket was returned to its pre-release size; in a second experiment (Partial Return), it was returned to 102% of its pre-release size. Short-term and long-term limb fluid volume retention were calculated and compared to a projected, No Intervention condition.


Partial Return and Full Return short-term retentions and Partial Return long-term retention were greater than those projected under the control condition ( p < 0.05).


Socket release during resting after activity, particularly when the socket is returned to a slightly larger size, may be an effective accommodation strategy to reduce fluid volume loss in transtibial prosthesis users.

Clinical Relevance

This study suggests that existing prosthetic technologies' adjustable sockets and locking pin tethers can be used in novel ways to help maintain residual limb fluid volume in active prosthesis users.