Extending Applications of Local Anesthesia Without Tourniquet to Flap Harvest and Transfer in the Hand.

The authors' experience demonstrates that wide-awake flap surgery in the hand is safe. The authors used this approach in 4 commonly used flaps in the hand in 27 patients: the extended Segmuller flap, the homo-digital reverse digital artery flap, the dorsal metacarpal artery perforator flap, and the Atasoy advancement flap. Wide-awake flap surgery works very well and safely achieved excellent anesthetic and vasoconstrictive effects in the authors' cases. The authors found that vasoconstriction caused by epinephrine mainly affects the capillaries and does not affect digital arteries and their major branches in the hand.